Koleksi Raffles Dari Jawa: Bukti Dari Eropa Tentang Sebuah Peradaban

Authors

  • Alexandra Green British Museum

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24164/pw.v9i2.376

Keywords:

Stamford Raffles, collecting history, art history, colonialism

Abstract

Stamford Raffles was promoted to Lieutenant Governor of Java when the island was taken from the Dutch by the British East India Company in 1811 as part of the Napoleonic warsin Europe. During Raffles’ years on Java, he collected substantial cultural materials,among  others  are;  theatrical  objects,  musical  instruments,  coins  and  amulets,  metal sculpture, and drawings of Hindu- Buddhist buildings and sculpture. European interest inantiquities explains the ancient Hindu- Buddhist material in Raffles’s collection, but thetheatrical objects were less understood easily. This essay explored Raffles’ s collecting practices, addressing the key questions of what he collected and why, as well as what were the shape of the collection can tell us about him, his ideas and beliefs, his contemporaries, and Java, including interactions between colonizers and locals. I compared the types of objects in the collections with Raffles’ writings, as well as the writings of his contemporaries on Java and Sumatra in the British Library and the Royal Asiatic Society. Raffles was one of the first people to apply the enlightenment notion of systematic collecting to cultural material, but his collections were not systematized by Javanese standards, indicating his incomplete understanding of the local culture. Instead, the objects demonstrated that Raffles chose items considered indicative of civilization according to European ideas, assembling objects to support his argument in favor of Java as a remaining of a British colony, as well as to promote his own image as a scholar- official. 

References

Anonymous. 1819a. Review of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, The History of Java. The

Edinburgh monthly review; London 2 (12): 633--54.

Anonymous. 1819b. Review of Thomas Stamford Raffles, The History of Java. National

Register 6 (35 and 36): 727–47 and 925–35.

Barley, Nigel. 1999. Introduction. In The Golden Sword: Stamford Raffles and the East, ed. Nigel Barley. London: British Museum Press, 11–15.

British Library. 1812. Mss.Eur.F148/47, Section 50.

Burke, Edmund. 1757. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the

Sublime and Beautiful. London: R. and J. Dodsley.

Carey, Peter, ed. 1992. The British in Java, 1811--1816: A Javanese Account. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crawfurd, John. 1820. The Ruins of Prambanan in Java. Asiatick Researches 13: 337–

Finn, Margot C. 2006. Colonial Gifts: Family Politics and the Exchange of Goods in

British India, c. 1780–1820. Modern Asian Studies 40 (1): 203–31.

Forge, Anthony. 1994. Raffles and Daniell: Making the Image Fit. In Recovering the Orient: Artists, Scholars, Appropriations, eds. C. Andrew Gerstle and Anthony Crothers Milner. Chur [Switzerland]: Harwood Academic Publishers, 109–50.

Gallop, Annabel Teh. 1995. Early Views of Indonesia: Drawings from the British Library: Pemandangan Indonesia di Masa Lampau: Seni Gambar dari British Library. London; Jakarta: British Library; Yayasan Lontar.

Harris, Marvin. 2001. The Rise of Anthropological Theory: A History of Theories of

Culture. Updated ed. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Hill, A H. 1955. The Hikayat Abdullah. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal

Asiatic Society 28 (3).

Hunt, Margaret. 1993. Racism, Imperialism, and the Traveler‘s Gaze in Eighteenth- Century England. The Journal of British Studies 32 (4): 333–57.

Jordaan, Roy. 2016. Nicolaus Engelhard and Thomas Stamford Raffles: Brethren in

Javanese Antiquities. Indonesia 101: 39–66.

London Dock Minute Book 1815-17, National Archives, London, CUST 102/214.

Lopez, Donald S. 1995. Introduction. In Curators of the Buddha: The Study of Buddhism under Colonialism, ed. Donald S. Lopez. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1–29.

Mackenzie, Colin. Remarks and Observations on the Ruins of Prambana. British

Library, Mackenzie Private 36.

Van Boeckholtz, François. Copy of an Historical Account of the Island of Great Java by

François Van Boeckholtz. British Library, Mackenzie Private 16.

Raffles, Sophia. 1830. Memoir of the Life and Public Services of Sir Thomas Stamford

Raffles. London: John Murray.

Raffles, T.S. 1816. A Discourse Delivered to the Literary and Scientific Society at Java, on the 10th of September, 1815 by the Hon. Thomas Stamford Raffles, President. The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British India and its Dependencies 1 (4): 342–56.

Raffles, T.S. 1817. The History of Java. Kuala Lampur: Oxford University Press.

Raffles, Reverend Thomas. 1864. Memoirs of the Life and Ministry of the Rev. Thomas

Raffles. London: Jackson, Walford, and Hodder.

Ross, Laurie Margot. 2016. The Encoded Cirebon Mask: Materiality, Flow, and

Meaning along Java’s Islamic Northwest Coast. Leiden: Brill.

Scheurleer, Pauline Lunsingh. 2007. Collecting Javanese Antiquities: The Appropriation of a Newly Discovered Hindu-Buddhist Civilization. In Colonial Collections Revisited, ed. Pieter ter Keurs. Leiden: Research School CNWS, 71–114.

Sumarsam. 1992. Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central

Java. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Syson, Luke. 2003. The Ordering of the Artificial World: Collecting, Classification and Progress. In Enlightenment: Discovering the World in the Eighteenth Century, ed. Kim Sloan. London: British Museum Press, 108–21.

Thorn, W. 1815. Memoir of the Conquest of Java: With the Subsequent Operations of the British Forces, in the Oriental Archipelago. To Which Is Subjoined a Statistical and Historical Sketch of Java with an Account of Its Dependencies. T. Egerton.

Tiffin, Sarah. 2009. Java‘s Ruined Candis and the British Picturesque Ideal. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 72 (3): 525–58.

Tiffin, Sarah. 2016. Southeast Asia in Ruins: Art and Empire in the Early 19th Century.

Singapore: NUS Press.

Downloads

Published

2020-12-10

How to Cite

Green, A. (2020). Koleksi Raffles Dari Jawa: Bukti Dari Eropa Tentang Sebuah Peradaban. PURBAWIDYA: Jurnal Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Arkeologi, 9(2), 165–182. https://doi.org/10.24164/pw.v9i2.376